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Pulmonary Fibrosis

marijuana and pulmonary fibrosis

Medical Marijuana for Pulmonary Fibrosis

Medical cannabis is becoming more and more popular as a potential medical treatment for a variety of chronic health conditions. Medical marijuana for pulmonary fibrosis could offer relief as well.

What Is Pulmonary Fibrosis?

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a health disorder that causes lung stiffness and scarring, making it hard to breathe. It may keep your body from getting the oxygen you need and can eventually result in heart failure, respiratory failure and other problems. Doctors and researchers discovered the first form of lung fibrosis during the 19th century. During this time, they took lung samples to try to understand the reason behind the scarring. PF didn’t show much improvement until the 20th century.

There’s no scarring in normal lungs — that means oxygen passes from the lungs easily and into the air sacs and bloodstream. This oxygenates the blood. With pulmonary fibrosis, your lungs don’t have elasticity and are stiff because of the scarring. The scarring makes it difficult for the oxygen to move around the air sacs, or alveoli, and reduces how much oxygen passes into your bloodstream.

The fibrosis also reduces the size of your lungs over time, which further worsens the condition. As your pulmonary fibrosis progresses, it may get harder and harder for you to breathe and you may need to rely on an oxygen device to help you.

A variety of factors can cause pulmonary fibrosis-related scarring. However, in most instances, physicians can’t figure out exactly what the cause of it is. When this occurs, it’s known as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Researchers think a combination of lung irritant exposure and other factors may play a significant role in the condition. These may include:

  • Certain chemicals
  • Infections
  • Smoking
  • Immune system activity
  • Genetics

Scientists used to think inflammation caused pulmonary fibrosis. Now, they believe an irregular lung healing process could lead to scarring. Significant lung scarring formation eventually turns into pulmonary fibrosis.

Types of Pulmonary Fibrosis

There are two types of pulmonary fibrosis:

  1. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

When doctors can’t confirm the cause of the condition, they term it “idiopathic.” Since they don’t know what the disease’s underlying cause is, it can be hard for them to treat it. At present, there are a couple of medications the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). These are Ofev and Esbriet. They help slow the disease’s progression down and avoid exacerbations.

Respiratory failure is a concern for patients with IPF, but the condition may also lead to:

  • Pneumonia
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Lung cancer
  • Heart failure
  1. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis (FPF)

People rarely get familial pulmonary fibrosis. Although it’s just as severe as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, doctors can often diagnose it much earlier to give the patient a better outcome. Physicians can also separate both types of pulmonary fibrosis into stages:

  • Mild
  • Moderate
  • Severe
  • Very severe

Doctors monitor the disease through staging, which helps them advise the patient and family about the progression of their PF, define the outcome and decide on a treatment approach.

Symptoms of Pulmonary Fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis symptoms may include:

  • Fatigue
  • A dry cough
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Dyspnea (shortness of breath)
  • Clubbing (rounding and widening of the tips of toes and fingers)
  • Aching joints and muscles

The severity of symptoms and course of pulmonary fibrosis can be considerably different for each person. While some may get sick fast with the condition, others may have moderate discomfort that gradually gets worse with time.

Then, there are those who have their symptoms become rapidly worse. This is called acute exacerbation and might include symptoms like shortness of breath, which could last for several weeks. If you have acute exacerbations, you doctor may place you on a mechanical ventilator. Your physician may also prescribe you corticosteroid medications or antibiotics to treat the acute exacerbation.

Effects of Pulmonary Fibrosis

Lung scarring associated with pulmonary fibrosis is not reversible. No treatments have proven effective in stopping the disease’s progression entirely, but some treatments might slow the advancement of the disease temporarily and improve symptoms.

Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis have a median survival rate of only two to three years, but there are those who do live much longer. The most common reason for death with PF is respiratory failure due to the progression of the condition. While there’s an overall poor prognosis for IPF, the clinical course of each patient differs from gradual progression of the condition to acute decompensation and death.

Several clinical variables associate with survival, but there’s no real approach to bring predictors together to define the disease’s stage or determine prognosis accurately.

Mental Effects

When thinking of a person with lung disease like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, you can probably understand why a primary side effect would be physical exhaustion. However, what you may not realize is that mental exhaustion typically coincides with having chronic conditions like IPF.

mental exhaustion

Pulmonary fibrosis can make you feel mentally exhausted on top of taking a physical toll on your body. Asking for help can be difficult for you. Because of your declining lung function, you likely can’t do simple things like you once could. While your loved ones might offer you help, it may be a mental battle internally for you to accept it or ask for it.

You also need to consider your future needs. There will be things to think about such as:

  • Employment
  • Finances
  • Needing help for basic tasks
  • Transplant process
  • Treatment
  • Stress

It all can become overwhelming. You may be worried about what your condition will do to your family and what it will put them through. Numerous things can cause mental exhaustion and fatigue relating directly to your IPF diagnosis and living with the condition.

There’s also the risk of depression and anxiety. In a study, anxiety and depression symptoms were seen in around 25.9 percent and 21.4 percent of IPF patients. Anxiety and depression are quite common in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. While there are no substantial differences as far as hospitalization and survival rate, this study shows anxiety and depression can influence an idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patient’s quality of life significantly.

Pulmonary Fibrosis Statistics

Statistics reported by the National Institutes of Health about pulmonary fibrosis include:

ipf stats

Current Treatments Available for Pulmonary Fibrosis and Their Side Effects

Each person who receives a pulmonary fibrosis diagnosis will experience the condition in their own way. There isn’t any expected or standard clinical course.

Some individuals remain stable for long periods of time while others experience a quick symptom progression. There are then those who suffer episodes of deterioration as time goes on that fluctuate between periods of worsening symptoms and stability. Because of this, doctors individualize PF treatment approaches based on medical history and symptoms.

Medications

Doctors prescribe a whole range of PF medications. Your doctor decides if you require medication to treat your pulmonary fibrosis case. Some medications your doctor could prescribe to treat your pulmonary fibrosis include:

  1. Corticosteroids

Corticosteroids like prednisone decrease inflammation and suppress your immune system. Side effects may include:

  • Diabetes
  • Osteoporosis
  • Weight gain
  • Hypertension
  • Skin thinning
  • Increased susceptibility to infection
  • Glaucoma and cataracts
  • Bruising easily
  1. Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)

Cytoxan is a chemo agent that suppresses inflammation. Doctors commonly prescribe it to treat different types of PF. While patients usually take cyclophosphamide in pill form, you can receive it intravenously. Side effects may include:

  • Stomach upset or pain
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Temporary hair loss
  • Diarrhea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Missed menstrual periods
  • Skin color changes (darkening)
  1. Mycophenolate Mofetil

Myfortic and Cellcept are two types of mycophenolate mofetil medications. They modulate your immune system. Doctors may prescribe them by themselves or with corticosteroids. Side effects may include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Stomach pain
  • Constipation
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Sleep problems
  • Anxiety
  • Tingling or numbness feeling
  • Swelling of your feet or hands
  1. Nintedanib (Ofev)

This is an anti-fibrotic that doctors use to treat IPF. It helps slow lung function decline in those who have mild-to-moderate cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. You take it twice a day orally. Side effects may include:

  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal or stomach pain
  • Liver enzyme elevation
  • Liver problems
  • A headache
  • Hypertension
  • Weight loss
  • Decreased appetite

These are only some of the many different medications prescribed to patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Be sure to talk with your doctor to see which of these or other medicines might help treat your PF.

Clinical Trials

The medical research community continues to aggressively investigate new treatments for all types of pulmonary fibrosis. You can reach out to your doctor to see if you can join a study testing experimental treatment options. Clinical trials for pulmonary fibrosis can include studies of anti-fibrotic therapies, stem cell therapies, growth factor inhibitor proteins and genetic research.

You can search for clinical trials for pulmonary fibrosis at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) website.

How and Why Marijuana Can Be an Effective Treatment for Pulmonary Fibrosis

Because there’s inflammation involved with pulmonary fibrosis, anti-inflammatory medications and treatments are usually effective. In one study, researchers found the THC in marijuana to have anti-inflammatory properties, which they feel accounts for the pulmonary function improvement in patients using cannabis.

marijuana help

Ingested or vaporized weed may offer potential benefits due to its immunosuppressant, anti-inflammatory and bronchodilation (airway-opening) properties.

Bronchodilatory Effects

In the 1970s, Donald Tashkin at the University of California Los Angeles performed studies that found both orally ingested and inhaled THC provide bronchodilation for several hours after it’s administered. Other studies found activating the CB1 receptor inhibits smooth muscle contraction of the lungs, which offers a potential acute bronchodilation mechanism linked with marijuana intake.

Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Cannabinoids provide anti-inflammatory qualities. Raw plant acidic cannabinoids (CBDA, THCA, etc.) provide greater anti-inflammatory properties than the raw plant’s non-acidic cannabinoids (CBD, THC, etc.). Researchers have found CBD to improve COPD symptoms. It also acts as an inflammatory agent and leads to reduced pulmonary inflammation and improved lung function in mice with inflammatory lung disease.

In addition to the anti-inflammatory benefits of marijuana for pulmonary fibrosis, the herb may also have an anti-anxiety effect. A researcher who performed clinical studies reports patients feeling relaxed and calm after using cannabis.

Studies like these show that marijuana may act as a way to reduce acute airway constriction attacks and become a viable preventative therapy for COPD patients. However, researchers need human trials to confirm these benefits.

What Side Effects and Symptoms of Pulmonary Fibrosis Can Medical Marijuana Treat?

According to the Lung Institute, marijuana and pulmonary fibrosis treatment could also help in:

  • Improving sleep
  • Reducing inflammation
  • Reducing phlegm
  • Supporting the immune system
  • Easing pain

Just note that smoking cannabis presents one possible problem when using medical marijuana to treat pulmonary fibrosis. Smoking weed may harm patients with lung diseases, since there’s no “filter” on a joint or marijuana cigarette and individuals smoking it tend to inhale its smoke more deeply. This leaves smoke in their lungs for a more extended period than cigarettes.

smoke medical marijuana

Still, researchers found those who only smoke cannabis occasionally — a couple of joints a month — showed improved pulmonary function instead of reduced.

Best Strains of Marijuana for Pulmonary Fibrosis Symptoms and Treatment Side Effects

As with any treatment, finding the right medical cannabis strain for pulmonary fibrosis may take some trial and error. Just like not every treatment may be effective for your symptoms, not all strains will be, either. To help with this, below are some strains that are good for relieving the symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis:

For Inflammation:

  • ACDC: Sativa
  • Cannatonic: Hybrid
  • Girl Scout Cookies: Indica with a strong sativa component

For Sleep:

  • Cookie Jar: Indica dominant with a sativa component
  • Harlequin: Sativa
  • White Widow: Hybrid

For Pain:

  • Afghan Kush: Indica
  • Green Crack: Sativa
  • Blue Dream: Sativa

For Depression:

  • Pennywise: Mostly-Indica strain with a high CBD count
  • Sour Tsunami: Balanced High-CBD strain.
  • OG Kush: Hybrid

Medical marijuana may also help alleviate the uncomfortable side effects of some of the medications used for pulmonary fibrosis, such as nausea and vomiting, headache, anxiety and more. For instance, Headband is good for nausea, Sour Diesel for a headache and Jack Herer for anxiety.

Best Methods of Marijuana Treatment for the Side Effects and Symptoms of Pulmonary Fibrosis

The benefit of cannabis and pulmonary fibrosis treatment, when compared with standard treatments, is the flexibility in delivery. These days, you can ingest cannabis in multiple ways, including:

CBD oil eliminates the THC chemical so you don’t get that “high” feeling — only relief from your symptoms.

Begin the Process of Securing Your Medical Marijuana for Pulmonary Fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis, like any other condition, can be distressing. But you can find some relief from its uncomfortable symptoms. Search for a medical marijuana doctor today so you can obtain your medical marijuana card and begin shopping around for your perfect strains by finding a cannabis dispensary. Once you book an appointment with a licensed cannabis doctor, you’ll be well on your way to experiencing the benefits medical marijuana can offer you.

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Resources:

  1. https://lunginstitute.com/blog/history-of-pulmonary-fibrosis/
  2. http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/full/10.1164/rccm.201006-0894CI
  3. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis#statistics
  4. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov

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