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Doctor Specialty Glossary

Below is a glossary of doctor specialties that may help you select a medical marijuana doctor. This text is for informative purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for medical advice from a doctor. Always consult your physician before making any decision on the treatment of a medical condition.

Addiction psychiatrist

Addiction psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in the treatment of people with addictions to substances such as alcohol, medications, or illegal drugs. Addiction psychiatrists can be board-certified through the Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Adolescent medicine specialist

Adolescent medicine specialists are doctors (sometimes internists or pediatricians) who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions and diseases common to teenagers. Adolescent medicine specialists can be board-certified through the Board of Internal Medicine or the Board of Pediatrics, both of which are recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Allergist

Allergists (also called immunologists) are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of immune system diseases. They treat people with conditions such as asthma, eczema, and allergic reactions to food, medications, insect stings, or environmental agents such as pollen.nAllergists may specialize in treating certain types of conditions, such as food allergies, or they may specialize in treating people in certain age groups, such as pediatric allergists, who treat children. As more is understood about immune system disorders, allergists treat a broader range of conditions caused by immune system problems.nAllergists can be board-certified by the Board of Allergy and Immunology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Anesthesiologist

Anesthesiologists are medical doctors who specialize in anesthesiology, which is the use of pain-blocking techniques or medications (anesthetics) during surgery and other medical procedures. An anesthesiologist may administer medication that numbs the area of the body where a procedure is being performed (local or regional anesthesia), inject medicine into the spinal canal to numb an area of the body (spinal or epidural anesthesia), or make sure a person is unconscious and pain-free during a procedure (general anesthesia) while also monitoring heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. An anesthesiologist may also supervise a nurse anesthetist. Anesthesiologists can further specialize in critical care medicine, pain management, pediatrics, or obstetrics. Anesthesiologists can be board-certified through the Board of Anesthesiology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Cardiac electrophysiologist

Cardiac electrophysiologists are cardiology doctors (cardiologists) who have specialized training in the heart's electrical system. They specialize in diagnosing and treating heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) such as atrial fibrillation. They can be board-certified through the Board of Internal Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Cardiologists

Cardiologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases or conditions of the heart and blood vessels, such as chest pain (angina), irregular heart rhythms, high blood pressure, heart failure, or heart attacks.   Cardiologists administer tests that indicate how well a person's heart is working, such as a treadmill test (exercise electrocardiogram), and perform procedures such as cardiac catheterization and angioplasty. They can further specialize in interventional cardiology (the use of mechanical treatment methods, such as angioplasty) or electrophysiology (treatments involving the heart's electrical system) and may also specialize in treating specific age groups, such as a pediatric cardiologist, who only treats children.   Cardiologists can be board-certified through the Board of Internal Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties. Pediatric cardiologists are recognized by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

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Cardiovascular surgeon

Cardiovascular surgeons are medical doctors who specialize in surgery of the heart and blood vessels. They generally perform heart surgeries and treat people who have a blockage in the blood vessels leading to the heart (coronary artery disease) or problems with heart valves. Cardiovascular surgeons may further specialize in treating people of specific age groups, such as pediatric cardiovascular surgeons, who only treat children and often treat heart problems related to birth defects. Cardiovascular surgeons can be board-certified by the Board of Surgery in general surgery or vascular surgery. The Board of Surgery is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Colon and rectal surgeons

Colon and rectal surgeons are medical doctors who specialize in surgery of the colon and rectum. Colon and rectal surgeons can diagnose and treat diseases such as colon cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases including colitis and regional enteritis (Crohn's disease), and hemorrhoids. They may also perform diagnostic procedures, such as sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Colon and rectal surgeons can be board-certified through the Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Critical care medicine specialist

Critical care medicine specialists (also called intensivists) are medical doctors who specialize in the care of people who are in an intensive care unit (ICU). In some areas, when a person is very ill and has to spend time in an ICU, he or she is cared for by a critical care medicine specialist. After the person is transferred out of the ICU to a regular hospital unit, another doctor or health professional assumes care. Most critical care specialists are pulmonologists (specializing in lung disease) or cardiologists (specializing in heart disease). Critical care specialists may also first specialize in anesthesiology, internal medicine, neurological surgery, pediatrics, or surgery and then hold a subspecialist certificate in critical care medicine. Critical care medicine specialists can be board-certified through the Boards of Anesthesiology, Internal Medicine, or Pediatrics, which are all recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Dermatologist

Dermatologists are medical doctors who specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases and conditions of the skin, hair, or nails, such as acne, psoriasis, warts, or skin cancer. Dermatologists may prescribe medications as well as perform surgery for skin disorders. They may specialize in treating specific age groups, such as a pediatric dermatologist, who only treats children. Dermatologists can be board-certified through the Board of Dermatology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Developmental pediatrician

Developmental pediatricians are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of children with behavior, communication, or mental problems. These include cerebral palsy, autism, learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, failure to thrive, and mental retardation. Pediatricians can be board-certified through the Board of Pediatrics, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Diagnostic radiologist

Diagnostic radiologists are radiologists who further specialize in performing tests to diagnose diseases. People might see a diagnostic radiologist to get a test such as an ultrasound. Diagnostic radiologists can be board-certified through the Board of Radiology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Doctors

See Otolaryngologist

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Emergency medicine specialist

Emergency medicine specialists, commonly called ER doctors, are medical doctors who specialize in emergency care. They can diagnose and treat many medical emergencies and can refer people to other health professionals for further treatment. Emergency medicine specialists may further specialize in one area of medicine, such as sports medicine, or they may only treat children (pediatric emergency medicine specialists). Emergency medicine doctors can be board-certified through the Board of Emergency Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Endocrinologist

Endocrinologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the endocrine glands, which regulate hormones. Endocrinologists are internists with additional training in endocrinology. They often treat diabetes and thyroid disorders. They may further specialize in treating specific age groups, such as pediatric endocrinologists, who only treat children. Endocrinologists can be board-certified through the Board of Internal Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Family medicine physician

Family medicine physicians, also called family practice physicians, are medical doctors who specialize in the total health care of the individual and the family. They can diagnose and treat a variety of health conditions and diseases for people of all ages and both sexes. They may further specialize in another area of medicine, such as the care of older adults (geriatric medicine) or people who have sports injuries (sports medicine). Family medicine physicians can be board-certified by the Board of Family Practice, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Forensic pathologist

Forensic pathologists are medical doctors who examine tissue samples and perform autopsies to find clues about the cause of death when crimes are suspected. Forensic pathologists can be board-certified through the Board of Pathology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Gastroenterologist

Gastroenterologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the digestive system, such as hepatitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and colon or rectal cancer. Gastroenterologists may perform many specialized tests, such as endoscopy, to diagnose or treat diseases. When necessary, they may consult with surgeons. Gastroenterologists may further specialize in treating people in certain age groups, such as pediatric gastroenterologists, who only treat children. Gastroenterologists can be board-certified by the Board of Internal Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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General practitioner

General practitioners are medical doctors who diagnose and treat most types of health conditions or diseases and do not specialize in any particular area of medicine. They provide basic medical service for people of all age groups and both sexes. There is no board certification for general practitioners.

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Geriatric medicine specialist

Geriatric medicine specialists (also called geriatricians) are generally family medicine doctors or internists who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions and diseases of older adults. Geriatric medicine specialists can diagnose and treat many medical and surgical problems and can refer people to other specialists. Geriatric medicine specialists may be board-certified in family medicine, internal medicine, or geriatric medicine. Geriatric medicine specialists can be board certified by the American Board of Family Practice or the Board of Internal Medicine, which are recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Geriatrician

See Geriatric medicine specialist

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Gynecologic oncologist

Gynecologic oncologists are medical doctors who specialize in the care and treatment of women with cancers of the ovaries, uterus, cervix, and vagina. They can be board-certified through the Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Gynecologist

Gynecologists are medical doctors who diagnose and treat diseases of the female reproductive system. Gynecologists perform surgeries, such as removal of the uterus and ovaries and also can provide routine care, such as Pap smears or breast examinations. Gynecologists may also practice obstetrics (the management of pregnancy). They may further specialize in gynecologic oncology (the care and treatment of women with cancers of the reproductive organs) or reproductive endocrinology (the care and treatment of women and men who have infertility problems). Gynecologists can be board-certified through the Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Hand surgeon

Hand surgeons are orthopedic surgeons or plastic surgeons who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of hand problems and injuries. They can be board-certified through the Boards of Surgery or Orthopedic Surgery, which are recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Hematologist

Hematologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the blood and blood system, such as anemia, blood-clotting disorders, and leukemia. Hematologists may also perform procedures such as bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, order blood transfusions, or diagnose blood disorders. Hematologists may be internists or pathologists who further specialize in disorders of the blood. Hematologists can be board-certified in hematology through the Board of Internal Medicine or the American Board of Pathology, which are recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Hepatologist

Hepatologists are gastroenterology doctors who further specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the liver, such as hepatitis or cirrhosis, and most have also completed additional study in the area of liver transplantation. Hepatologists may perform many specialized tests to diagnose liver disease or obtain liver biopsies. Hepatology is not recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties as a distinct subspecialty. Most hepatologists are board-certified by the Board of Internal Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Hospitalist

Hospitalists are medical doctors who specialize in hospital care, providing treatment in place of a primary care physician. They usually are general internists, family medicine doctors, pulmonologists, or other specialists.Currently, there is no board certification for hospitalists other than certification in an initial specialty area.

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Hyperbaric physician

Hyperbaric physicians are medical doctors who specialize in hyperbaric medicine, which uses hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy as a treatment for conditions such as decompression illness and carbon monoxide poisoning.They can be certified through the American College of Hyperbaric Medicine.

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Immunologist

See Allergist

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Infectious disease specialists

Infectious disease specialists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of complex infections. They also treat people who have long-term (chronic) infections, or disorders such as HIV or tuberculosis. Infectious disease specialists are internists or pediatricians who further specialize in infectious diseases. They can be board-certified in infectious disease through the Board of Internal Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Internist

An internist is a medical doctor who specializes in the care of adults. People might choose an internist as their primary doctor for regular checkups and for treating illness. They can further specialize in: Adolescent medicine (conditions and diseases common to teenagers). Allergy, or immunology (immune system diseases). Cardiac electrophysiology (problems with the heart's electrical system).   Cardiology (diseases and conditions of the heart and blood vessels).n Critical care medicine (the care of people who are in an intensive care unit, or ICU). Endocrinology (diseases of the endocrine glands, which regulate hormones). Gastroenterology (diseases of the digestive system). Geriatric medicine (conditions and diseases in older adults). Hematology (diseases of the blood and blood system). Infectious disease (complex infections). Interventional cardiology (procedures to diagnose and treat heart disease). Nephrology (diseases of the kidney and urinary system). Oncology (cancer). Pulmonology (lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, and pneumonia). Rheumatology (immune system diseases and diseases of the joints). Sports medicine (the treatment of injuries to the bones, muscles, joints, tendons, or ligaments that result from physical activity). Internists can be board-certified by the Board of Internal Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Interventional cardiologists

Interventional cardiologists are medical doctors who specialize in performing surgical or invasive procedures, such as cardiac catheterization or angioplasty, to diagnose and treat heart disease.They can be board-certified as internists or interventional cardiologists through the Board of Internal Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Maxillofacial surgeons

See Oral Surgeon

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Medical examiner

A medical examiner is a public official who investigates deaths defined by law as being important to the public health and welfare. These generally include deaths thought to be from other than natural causes but also may include sudden and unexpected deaths determined later at autopsy to be from natural disease or deaths in people who were not under the immediate care of a doctor at the time of death. Different from coroners, medical examiners must be doctors, most are appointed rather than elected, and many are certified in the specialty of forensic pathology and have expertise in the performance of autopsies.

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Medical geneticists

Medical geneticists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of genetic disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, and hemophilia. They treat patients with a family history of a disease that may be genetic and provide genetic counseling to people before they have children. They can be board-certified through the Board of Medical Genetics, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Medical oncologists

Medical oncologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. They may be involved in determining the type and extent of cancer and providing treatments such as chemotherapy. After treatment, oncologists provide follow-up care to monitor the progress of people who have had cancer and resume care for them if their cancer returns. Medical oncologists may further specialize in treating certain types of cancers or treating specific age groups, such as pediatric oncologists, who only treat children. Medical oncologists can be board-certified in medical oncology through the Board of Internal Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Neonatologist

A neonatologist is a pediatric doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders in newborns. Neonatologists are usually consultants and work in neonatal intensive care units, providing care for premature infants or those born with infections or other health problems. They can be board-certified through the Board of Pediatrics, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Nephrologist

Nephrologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the kidney and urinary system, such as inflammation of the kidneys, chronic kidney disease, or cancer. Nephrologists may further specialize in treating certain age groups, such as pediatric nephrologists, who only treat children. Nephrologists may consult with people for short-term illnesses or procedures, such as for a kidney biopsy, or they may serve as a primary doctor for people who have long-term (chronic) kidney problems or who are on dialysis. Nephrologists can be board-certified in nephrology through the Board of Internal Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Neurological surgeon

Neurological surgeons are medical doctors who specialize in surgery of the brain, spinal column, and nervous system. A person may see a neurological surgeon for a problem such as a pinched nerve in the back or neck, a brain tumor, or damage to the brain or spine from an injury. A neurological surgeon may specialize in the treatment of one area of the body, such as the spinal column, or treatment of certain age groups, such as pediatric neurological surgeons, who only treat children. Neurological surgeons can be board-certified by the Board of Neurological Surgery, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Neurologist

Neurologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of brain, spinal cord, and nervous system diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, headaches, stroke, or injury. A neurologist can order or interpret tests such as a CT scan, MRI or lumbar puncture to diagnose problems and may conduct tests to evaluate how well a nerve or muscle is working. A neurologist can prescribe medications to treat diseases or may refer a person to another specialist if needed. Neurologists can be board-certified by the Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Nuclear medicine specialists

Nuclear medicine specialists are medical doctors who specialize in performing and evaluating diagnostic tests using different types of radioactive substances. Common nuclear medicine tests include bone scans, lung perfusion scans, and HIDA scans for gallbladder function. Nuclear medicine specialists can be board-certified through the Board of Nuclear Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Obstetrician

Obstetricians (also called OBs) are medical doctors who specialize in the care of pregnant women, from the time of conception through delivery and the period following delivery (postpartum). Most obstetricians are also gynecologists who diagnose and treat diseases of the female reproductive system and provide care for women when they are not pregnant. An obstetrician can further specialize in perinatology (maternal-fetal medicine), which focuses on high-risk pregnancies, testing, and fetal development, or an obstetrician may specialize in reproductive endocrinology and infertility (care of women who have hormonal or fertility problems). Obstetricians can be board-certified through the Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Occupational medicine specialist

Occupational medicine specialists are medical doctors who specialize in helping organizations maintain a safe and healthy workplace and provide care for injured workers and assist them in getting back to work. An occupational medicine specialist is a preventive medicine specialist who has further specialized in occupational medicine. They can be board-certified through the Board of Preventive Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Ophthalmologist

Ophthalmologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of eye problems, diseases, and injuries. They can diagnose and treat eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma; prescribe eyeglasses and contact lenses; treat eye injuries; and perform eye surgeries, such as cataract removal, glaucoma correction, or LASIK surgery. Ophthalmologists may further specialize in care of the retina (retina specialist) or in the care of children with eye problems (pediatric ophthalmologist). Ophthalmologists can be board-certified by the Board of Ophthalmology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Oral Surgeon

Oral surgeons (also called maxillofacial surgeons) are dentists who specialize in surgery of the mouth and jaw. Oral surgeons treat and reconstruct areas of the face, head, or neck after an injury or surgery. They prepare the jaw for denture construction, treat temporomandibular (TM) joint problems, perform cosmetic surgery, and treat birth defects (such as cleft lip and palate) or growth disturbances of the jaw. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons have graduated from an accredited dental school and completed a residency program approved by the American Dental Association Commission in Dental Accreditation. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons may be board-certified through the American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

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Orthopedic surgeons

Orthopedic surgeons are medical doctors who specialize in bone, muscle, and joint surgery. This includes corrective procedures, such as removing torn cartilage or replacing a joint. Some orthopedic surgeons specialize in specific areas such as shoulder surgery, hand surgery, or joint replacement. Orthopedic surgeons can be board-certified through the Board of Orthopaedic Surgery, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Osteopath

Doctors of osteopathy (DOs) are physicians who base diagnosis and treatment on the theory that the body's systems are interconnected, combining disease prevention and health maintenance with conventional medicine. DOs often use a treatment called manipulation or manual medicine, which is a hands-on approach that may include massage or pressure on an area of the body. Like medical doctors, DOs can prescribe medicine, order medical tests, and perform surgery. They serve as primary care providers, provide care in hospital settings, and may become certified in a specialty, such as anesthesiology, obstetrics and gynecology, or general surgery. Like MDs, DOs must pass a state medical board examination to obtain a license and enter practice. Each state board sets its own requirements and then issues the license for the osteopathic doctor to practice in that state. All states require licensure for osteopathic doctors.

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Otolaryngologist

Otolaryngologists, sometimes referred to as otorhinolaryngologists or ear, nose, and throat (ENT) doctors, are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases or conditions of the ear, nose, and throat. They can prescribe medication and perform surgery for sinus problems, sleep apnea, or to remove tonsils or cancerous growths, for example. Some otolaryngologists also do certain cosmetic procedures to improve appearance. Otolaryngologists can be board-certified through the Board of Otolaryngology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Pain management specialists

Pain management specialists are medical doctors who specialize in treatment of people who have ongoing (chronic) pain, such as back pain or nerve pain from diabetes. Medical doctors from many different specialties, such as anesthesiology, neurology, or physiatry, might further specialize in pain management. Pain management specialists can be board-certified through the Boards of Anesthesiology or Psychiatry and Neurology, which are recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties

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Pathologist

Pathologists are medical doctors who specialize in the examination of tissue and blood samples to diagnose disease and who perform autopsies. Pathologists analyze and evaluate all tissues removed from people by such procedures as surgery or biopsy. They also are in charge of the clinical laboratories that analyze blood and body fluid samples. For example, when a person has a mole removed or has a Pap test, a pathologist examines the specimen to determine the diagnosis. Treatment decisions are often made based on the pathology report. Pathologists can be board-certified in a number of subspecialities through the American Board of Pathology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialities.

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Pediatricians

Pediatricians are medical doctors who specialize in the care of children. Pediatricians can treat children with any type of problem, or they may specialize in specific areas, such as:nnAdolescent medicine (conditions and diseases common to teenagers).nDevelopmental disorders (behavior, communication, and mental disorders in children).nEndocrinology (diseases of the endocrine glands, which regulate hormones).nGastroenterology (diseases of the digestive system).nInfectious disease (complex infections).nNephrology (diseases of the kidney and urinary system).nOncology (cancer).nnPediatricians can be board-certified through the Board of Pediatrics, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Perinatologists

Perinatologists, also known as maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) specialists, are medical doctors who specialize in high-risk pregnancies, maternal and fetal testing, and fetal therapy. Perinatologists can be consultants or primary care providers during a pregnancy. They may provide medical care throughout a pregnancy, particularly if there is a higher risk of complications, an ongoing (chronic) medical condition, or a multiple pregnancy. In addition to a residency in obstetrics and gynecology, a perinatologist has 2 or 3 years of maternal-fetal medicine training. Perinatologists can be board-certified through the Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Physiatrist

Physiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in physical medicine and rehabilitation. They help people regain function after surgery, a stroke, or an injury and may also help people with issues such as controlling pain or regaining strength. Physiatrists often lead a team of health professionals that may include physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, and social workers, all of whom work together to improve a person's recovery from an illness, surgery, or injury. Physiatrists can further specialize in pain management or spinal cord injury. Physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists can be board-certified through the Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Plastic Surgeon

Plastic surgeons are medical doctors who specialize in surgery that improves a person's appearance, surgery for a birth defect such as cleft palate, or surgery following an injury or the removal of cancer, such as breast implant surgery after breast removal (mastectomy). Plastic surgeons can further specialize in hand surgery. They can be board-certified through the Board of Plastic Surgery, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Preventative Medicine Specialist

Preventive medicine specialists are medical doctors who specialize in helping people stay healthy and prevent disease. Preventive medicine specialists can further specialize in occupational medicine. They can be board-certified through the Board of Preventive Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Psychiatrist

Psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of mental health problems, such as depression. They provide counseling and can prescribe medications to treat mental illness. They can be board-certified through the Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Pulmonologist

Pulmonologists are medical doctors who further specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of lung disease, such as asthma, emphysema, or pneumonia. Pulmonologists perform tests to check how well a person is breathing, and they may use procedures such as bronchoscopy to diagnose a breathing problem. Pulmonologists can be board-certified through the Board of Internal Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Radiation oncologist

Radiation oncologists are medical doctors who specialize in using radiation therapy to treat people who have cancer. Most people are referred to a radiation oncologist by their primary doctor after a diagnosis of cancer, and they see the radiation oncologist at his or her office or in a hospital or extended care facility. Radiation oncologists can be board-certified through the Board of Radiology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Radiologist

Radiologists are medical doctors who specialize in performing and interpreting diagnostic imaging tests. They read X-rays and scans, such as chest X-rays, ultrasounds, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Another specialist or primary care doctor may base treatment decisions on findings reported by the radiologist. Radiologists may also supervise people who perform special tests, such as barium enemas or computed tomography (CT) scans. Radiologists can be board-certified through the Board of Radiology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Reproductive endocrinologist

Reproductive endocrinologists are medical doctors who specialize in the care and treatment of women who have trouble becoming pregnant or who have other reproductive or hormonal disorders. Reproductive endocrinologists are gynecologists who specialize in infertility. They can be board-certified through the Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Rheumatologist

Rheumatologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the joints. Rheumatologists may further specialize in diagnosing and treating arthritis and other rheumatic conditions, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or lupus. They can be board-certified through the Board of Internal Medicine, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Sleep disorders specialist

Sleep disorders specialists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and surgical and nonsurgical treatment of sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea and snoring. Sleep disorders specialists are not recognized as a separate medical subspecialty but are usually pulmonologists or otolaryngologists who are board-certified through either the Board of Internal Medicine or the Board of Otolaryngology, which are both recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Spinal cord injury specialist

Spinal cord injury specialists are rehabilitation doctors (physiatrists) who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of people with spinal cord injuries. A person is referred to a spinal cord injury specialist because of spinal cord disease or a spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury specialists can be board-certified through the Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Sports medicine specialist

Sports medicine specialists are medical doctors who specialize in the treatment of people with injuries to their bones, muscles, joints, tendons, or ligaments that result from physical activity. Such injuries may include cartilage tears, ligament ruptures of the knee, and shoulder or knee problems. n Sports medicine specialists may be doctors in emergency medicine, family medicine, or internal medicine, or they may be pediatricians who further specialize in sports medicine. Orthopedic surgeons also often specialize in sports medicine. Sports medicine specialists can be board-certified through the Boards of Emergency Medicine, Family Practice, Internal Medicine, or Pediatrics, all of which are recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Surgeon

Surgeons are medical doctors who specialize in evaluating people with potential surgical problems and performing surgical operations and techniques. Common surgeries include hernia repairs, gallbladder removal, and removal of the appendix. There are many subspecialties in surgery, including chest (thoracic) surgery, blood vessel (vascular) surgery, colon and rectal surgery, and plastic surgery. Surgeons may further specialize by limiting their practice to specific age groups, such as pediatric surgeons, who only treat children. Surgeons can be board-certified through the Board of Surgery, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Thoracic surgeon

Thoracic surgeons are medical doctors who specialize in chest, heart, and lung surgery. Thoracic surgeons may further specialize in one area, such as heart surgery or lung surgery, or in a subspecialty of that area, such as coronary artery bypass surgery. They can be board-certified through the Board of Thoracic Surgery, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Urologist

Urologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the urinary system in men and women and disorders of the male reproductive system. Urologists can prescribe medications, perform surgery, and treat urination problems, such as difficulty holding urine (incontinence) and tumors or stones in the urinary system. They treat problems of the male reproductive system such as impotence (erectile dysfunction). Urogynecologists specialize in treating urinary problems involving the female reproductive system, and pediatric urologists specialize in diagnosing and treating urinary problems in children. Urologists can be board-certified through the American Board of Urology, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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Vascular surgeons

Vascular surgeons are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of diseases of the blood vessels (vascular disease). Vascular surgeons can be board certified through the Board of Surgery, which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

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