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Marijuana Research: Cannabinoid Information Chart

Posted by Fuzzie Jenkins on 03/06/2013 in Medical Marijuana Research

THC, THCV, CBG, CBC, CBN, and CBD

The most common cannabinoids in cannabis are THC, THCV, CBG, CBC, CBN, and CBD. Since the 1980’s, the discovery of cannabinoid receptor cells has produced multitudes of research of the effects and workings of canabinoids. It was first hypothesized that cannabinoids produced their physiological and behavorial effects via non-specific interaction with cell membranes. It is now known that cannbinoids interact with specific membrane-bound receptors commonly found in mammals, birds, fish and reptiles. At present, there are two known types of cannabinoid receptors, termed CB1 and CB2.

When considering cannabis as an alternative medicine, it is important to remember that each cannabis strain has a unique chemical composition with varying amounts of THC, THCV, CBG, CBC, CBN, and CBD. Each strain can affect each person differently. Additionally, cultivation artists are taking cannabis strains and altering their genetic DNA by breeding the best characteristics from each plant. Thus, there are thousands of different variations of the cannabis plant.

Our friends at Canna-Test provided us with a quick visual profile of the potency of cannabinoids, THCV, CBG, CBC, CBN, and CBD. Take some moments to look and become an educated cannabis connoisseur and start bragging to your friends about how much you know about this natural vegetative delight.

 

Cannabinoid

Effects, features & Medical Applications

THC

Tetrahydrocannabinol

 

 

Brief:

Responsible for the ‘’High’’-effect (psychotropic): it amplifies all sensory functions such as sight, hearing, color sensitivity and increases sexual arousal and a greater sense of well being. Produces strong feelings of euphoria. Sharpens the mind (cerebral) and promotes creativity. Analgesic (pain relieving), sedative, relaxing, energetic, promotes creativity.

Discovery:

1964, Gaoni and Mechoulm, Weizmann Institue Rehovot.

Known Medicinal Benefits:

  • Anxiolytic – reduces the symptoms of anxiety
  • Neuroprotective – protects against nerve damage
  • Antispasmodic – relieves spasms and convulsions
  • Antiemetic – reduces vomiting and nausea
  • Analgesic – reduces pain
  • Appetite Stimulant – encourages eating and appetite
  • Antioxidant – fights free radicals in the bloodstream
  • Neuropathic analgesic – reduces pain from nervedamage
  • Bronchi-dialator -acts similarly to an inhaler to assist asthmatics with breathing
  • Anti-proliferative anticancer – reduces spread of certain cancers
  • Anti-inflammatory – reduces inflammation
  • Neurogenesis – promotes growth of new nerve tissue
  • Neuroprotectant – protects nerves from damage

THCV

Tetrahydrocannabivarin

 

Brief:

A psychoactive cannabinoid found along with THC in cannabis, research has shown that, in low doses, THCV will increase the effects of THC (strongly potentiating THC, provoking a heavy, stronger and faster “High”-effect) but in larger doses THCV is believed to oppose the effects of THC. Recent research into THCV has focused on its ability to reduce appetite.

Discovery: 1970, Edward Gil and colleagues, UK

Known medical benefits:

  • Apetite suppressant

 

   

CBD

Cannabidiol

 

 

 

Brief:

CBD works antagonistically in the micromolar range; it has an opposite effect of THC. It reduces the psychoactive effect, or the ‘’high’’ of THC, but in contrast, it will prolong slowly but increasingly this effect strongly. Not psychoactive. Effective against anxiety and stress (sedative). Strong muscle relaxation, especially on the smooth muscle fibers thus reducing muscle spasms.

Discovery:

1940,  first isolated by Adams and colleagues, and stereochemically determined in 1963 by Mechoulam and Shvo.

Known Medicinal Benefits: 

  • Anxiolytic – reduces the symptoms of anxiety.
  • Antiepileptic - reduces seizures and convulsions
  • Neuroprotective – protects against nerve damage
  • Vasorelaxant – reduces tension in blood vessel walls
  • Antispasmodic – relieves spasms and convulsions
  • Anti-ischemic – reduces risk of artery blockage
  • Antiemetic – reduces vomiting and nausea
  • Antibacterial – kills surface bacteria
  • Antidiabetic – reduces blood sugar levels
  • Antipsoriatic – reduces effects of psoriasis
  • Antipsychotic – reduces psychosis including delusions or hallucinations
  • Analgesic – reduces pain
  • Bone-stimulant – promotes bone growth
  • Intestinal anti-prokinetic – reduces contractions in the small intestine
  • Anti-inflammatory – reduces inflammation
  • Antiproliferative anticancer – reduces spread of certain cancers
  • Immunosuppressant – reduces function in immune system

CBN

Cannabinol

 

Brief:

Mildly psychoactive, sedative, analgesic. CBN is, just like aspirin, a non-narcotic type analgesic, but 3x as strong. CBN is a breakdown product of THC. During storage (aging) CBN will slowly increase as THC deteriorates. CBN is effective at relieving tension headache.

Discovery:

1896, Wood and colleagues in Cambridge, the first natural cannabinoid to be obtained in pure form

Known Medicinal Benefits:

  • Antispasmodic – relieves spasms and convulsions
  • Analgesic – reduces pain
  • Anti-inflammatory – reduces inflammation
  • Antioxidant – fights free radicals in the bloodstream

CBG

Cannabigerol

 

Brief:

Sedative, CBG tends to be higher in cannabis species without much THC (hemp varieties) and has hitherto been found only in trace amounts in most marijuana strains. CBG is the precursor form of a few of the other cannabinoids including THC and CBD. While little research has been conducted on CBG, it has been found to have medical properties including acting as a sedative, sleep inducer. Anti-microbial properties make it effective in treating bacterial infections.

Discovery:

1964 Gaoni and Mechoulam

Known Medicinal Benefits:

  • Antibacterial – kills surface bacteria
  • Anti-microbial
  • Antiproliferative – inhibits cell growth
  • Bone Stimulant – promotes bone growth

CBC

Cannabichromene

 

Brief:

Non-psychoactive cannabinoid that also potentiates THC. It interacts in an as yet unknown way with THC to make the ‘’high’’ more intense and pronounced.  it is also considered a strong sedative and analgesic.

Discovery:

1966 independently reported by Claussen and colleagues as well as Gaoni and Mechoulam.

Known Medicinal Benefits:

  • Anti-inflammatory – reduces inflammation
  • Analgesic – reduces pain
  • Bone Stimulant – promotes bone growth
  • Antimicrobial – kills bacteria or fungi
  • Antiproliferative – inhibits cell growth
  • Vasoconstriction - constricting of the blood vessels
  • Effective treatment of migraine

THCA

D9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid

 

Brief:

D9-THC has two acidic analogs: D9-THCA A and D9-THCA Bc. D9-THCA

Discovery:

D9-THCA A, first extracted by Korte and coworkers (1965), was isolated as a pure compound in 1967 by Nishioka’s group. In 1969, Mechoulam and coworkers reported the isolation of D9-THCA B.

Known medical benefits:

  • Anti-proliferative
  • Anti-spasmodic
  • Anti-inflamatory

 

CBDA

Cannabidiolic Acid

 

Brief:

The first cannabinoid acidc to be discovered, Together with CBD, CBDA is the main component of glandular hairs (up to 15%). In fresh plant material, 95% of CBD exists as its acid.

Discovery: 1955, Isolated by Krejci and Santavy.

Known Medical Benefits:

  • Anti-proliferative actions

References

Angelo A. Izzo1,4, Francesca Borrelli1,4, Raffaele Capasso1,4, Vincenzo Di Marzo2,4 and Raphael Mechoulam3. (2009) Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb. TIPS-730. 13

Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy 2 Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, National Research Council, Pozzuoli (NA), Italy 3Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, Hebrew University Medical Faculty, Jerusalem, Israel 4Endocannabinoid Research Group, Italy

R.J. Glas Alpha Nova Pharma Wageningen

 

 

Marijuana Research: Cannabinoid Information Chart

 

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